MAXIMUM NITROUS OXIDE RELEASE IS FROM DUNG OF
HUMPLESS JERSEY COW WHICH IS BRED FOR PRODUCING BEEF AND HAS A NITROGEN LADEN
GRAIN / OIL CAKE MEAL DIET . THE WESTERN
BEEF LOBBY MUST BE HEAVILY FINED
The bacteria (HUMPLESS cow dung )which break
down the manure release gases including methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia, enormous
nitrous oxide and hydrogen sulphide. These
HUMPLESS cows keep farting and belching methane.
THE GRASS EATING HUMPED VEDIC COW DUNG RELEASES
ONY 5 % OF THE NITROUS OXIDE RELEASED BY GLUTTON HUMPLESS COWS WITH POOR
DIGESTION PROCESS .
potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N20) is only a minute fraction (about
0.1%) of all the nitrogen products produced by combustion in the ship’s diesel
engine. Read this sentence a BILLION times. I am a world expert in this unlike
the STUPID white man..
If the GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL ( GWP ) is 1
for GOOD gas Carbon Dioxide, it is 302 for BAD gas Nitrous oxide and 104 for BAD
gas Methane over a 20 year period.
Paris COP21 is totally focused on harmless
Carbon Dioxide ( to target India and third world ) , while it is totally silent on MORE
POTENT greenhouse gases NITROUS OXIDE
and METHANE – to save the white man’s
BEEF , FRACKING and GM CROP FERTILISER LOBBY.
THE GREEN REVOLUTION IN INDIA DEMANDS
NITROGEN LADEN ARTIFICIAL FERTLISERS ..
PREVIOUSLY WE USED ORGANIC METHODS FOR AGRICULTURE. TODAY
WE DON’T SEE EARTHWORMS IN OUR TOP SOIL.
INDIA IS NOT HOLLAND OR THE WEST WITH USELESS
FEW INCHES OF TOP SOIL.. OUR VEDIC TOPSOIL WAS HUMUS LADEN AND SIX FEET DEEP ..
Nothing has contributed to shipping’s ‘dirty’
image than the exhaust gases that come from engines burning heavy fuel oil.
Burning residual fuels has allowed shipping to keep costs and therefore the
price of commodities and goods at a lower level than would otherwise have been
The two main pollutants from the ship’s
emission are Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Sulphur oxides (SOx). These gases have
adverse effects on the ozone layer in the troposphere area of the earth’s
atmosphere which results in the green house effect and global warming.
Both NOx and SOx are combustion products that
are emitted in to the environment in the form of smoke. MARPOL Annex VI is
strictly followed to have the air pollution under control limits.
CO2 is regulated indirectly under the Energy
Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) rules and is not controlled in the way that NOx
and SOx are.
A large part of Annex VI is the NOx Technical
Code 2008. The NOx Code is aimed at improving the environment by reducing the
effect of greenhouse gases and so-called acid rain.
Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
are both implicated but as regards the greenhouse effect this is because they
promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere
MARPOL Annex VI, as first adopted in 1997,
and entered into force 19 May 2005, limits the main air pollutants contained in
ships exhaust gas, including sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrous oxides (NOx), and
prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances. MARPOL Annex VI
also regulates shipboard incineration, and the emissions of volatile organic
compounds from tankers.
The revised Annex VI entered into force on 1
July 2010, sets limits on sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ship
exhausts as well as particulate matter and prohibits deliberate emissions of
ozone depleting substances, such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons. Stricter
standards are set for Emission Control Areas designated by IMO (Baltic Sea,
North Sea and North America).
Under the revised MARPOL Annex VI, the global
sulphur cap is reduced initially to 3.50% (from the current 4.50%), effective
from 1 January 2012; then progressively to 0.50 %, effective from 1 January 2020,
subject to a feasibility review to be completed no later than 2018.
Progressive reductions in NOx emissions from
marine diesel engines installed on ships are also included, with a “Tier II”
emission limit for engines installed on or after 1 January 2011; then with a
more stringent "Tier III" emission limit for engines installed on or
after 1 January 2016 operating in ECAs.
Marine diesel engines installed on or after 1
January 1990 but prior to 1 January 2000 are required to comply with “Tier I”
emission limits, if an approved method for that engine has been certified by an
The NOx Code sets out three tiers of control
that gradually became more stringent. The production of NOx is easier to
control in some engine types than others and as a consequence the allowed
limits for each stage of the IMO’s three stage roll out programme differ
depending on engine speed with the low speed engines given the highest
permissible output as shown below.
The revised NOx Technical Code 2008 includes
a new chapter based on the agreed approach for regulation of existing
(pre-2000) engines established in MARPOL Annex VI, provisions for a direct
measurement and monitoring method, a certification procedure for existing
engines, and test cycles to be applied to Tier II and Tier III engines.
Revisions to the regulations for
ozone-depleting substances, volatile organic compounds, shipboard incineration,
reception facilities, and fuel oil quality have been made with regulations on
fuel oil availability added.
Marine fuel in an I.C engine is burnt inside
the combustion chamber by the correct mixture of fuel and air in the presence
of heat or ignition source.
The ignition source in the marine engine is
the compression stroke of the piston, after which, the combustion begins.
As the air mixture is 21 % Oxygen and 78%
Nitrogen, nitrogen reacts with oxygen under certain engine operating conditions
to form Nitrogen oxides or NOx.
What Causes NOx in Marine Engines?:-----
High Cylinder Temperature and Pressure during
Heavy Load on the engine or engine unit.
Improper air and fuel ratio for combustion.
High Temperature of intake or scavenge air
inside the cylinder.
Over heated cylinder jacket due to poor heat
transfer by jacket cooler.
Jacket water temperature is on the higher
Bad quality of fuel used for engine.
Limits for NOx Emission For merchant vessel
-17.0 g/kwh when engine rpm (n) is less then
-4.50 x n (-0.2) g/kwh when ‘n’ is between
130 rpm or above 130 rpm but less then 2000rpm.
-9.8 g/kwh when ‘n’ is 2000 rpm and above.
n- Rated engine speed
gram per kilo watt hour
– revolution per minute
Timeline: MARPOL Annex VI (NOx related)
26 Sept 1997 – Annex VI formally adopted
1 Jan 2000 – Engine-makers begin building and
certifying NOx Tier I engines
19 May 2005 – Annex VI enters into force NOx
Oct 2008 – MEPC approves revised Annex VI and
NOx Technical Code 2008
In all internal combustion engines, boilers
and incinerators, it is necessary to mix air with the fuel to allow combustion
to take place. Air is mostly composed of nitrogen (about 78%) and oxygen (about
21%) with a few trace gases and water vapour.
The fuels themselves are a complex mix of
hydrocarbons with other components depending on their type. Even within the defined
ISO 8217 fuel grades there are no fixed absolutes but minimum and maximum
levels for constituents of the fuel.
Different fuel types burn best at different
temperatures and this along with their chemical composition and the spray
pattern into the combustion chamber is instrumental in determining the exhaust
gases produced. The majority of engines are at their most efficient when
cylinder pressures and temperature in the combustion chamber are high and when
operating at an optimum loading.
When measured in the exhaust duct of a marine
diesel engine, NOx emissions comprise about 95% nitric oxide (NO) and 5%
nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which is formed as NO oxidises after the engine. The
formation rate of the majority of nitric oxide is dependent on peak temperatures
in the engine cylinders – above 1,200°C the formation is significant and above
1,500°C it becomes rapid.
A highly efficient engine will obviously
reduce the amount of CO2 produced in relation to the power produced. However,
such conditions are more likely to produce NOx when burning oil fuels. Reducing
the temperature or pressure will reduce the amount of NOx produced but will
inevitably result in a less efficient engine.
Ensuring engines meet the NOx limits is in
the first instance down to the engine maker. The engine should come with a
technical file and a certificate confirming the engine complies with the
relevant limits. Thereafter, the owner has a choice of three methods of
ensuring the engine continues to perform as required.
ALL THESE DEADLY RULES ARE CREATED SO THAT
THE WHITE JEW CAN GAIN MONOPOLY OVER ENGINES AND SUPER EXPENSIVE KOSHER ENGINE
As vessels age it is not practically viable
to always use OEM NOx critical spare parts. Under MARPOL Annex VI, unless your vessel
has an approved on-board NOx verification system installed, you must purchase
only original engine maker spares.
Tier III regulations in particular require
the fitting of NOx abatement systems such as SCRs and proof of their operation whilst
in ECAs OEM NOx critical spare parts. Under MARPOL Annex VI, unless your vessel
has an approved on-board NOx verificationsystem installed, you must purchase
only original engine maker spares ( Original Equipment Manufacturer)monopolized
by white JEWS.
Low sulphur fuel is of course more costly
than normal bunker, therefore choosing the optimum time to change over bunkers
when moving into a SECA is very important. The simplest way to prove compliance
upon entering the SECA is by monitoring the SOx emissions from the exhaust to
verify the sulphur content of the fuel.
Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) in 2005
and 2012 aimed to reduce the rate of sulphur emissions from shipping.
Sustainable growth—an EU 2020 priority—is strategically linked to the SECA
regulation in that it promotes resource efficiency, greener environment and a
Thus, the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) and, as adopted by the European Parliament (EP), SECA regulation
stipulated that from 2015 all ships in SECA are under the obligation to use low
sulphur marine fuel that must not exceed 0.1% (IMO, 2011). This regulation has
incited rigorous arguments on the economic disadvantage it would subject
affected maritime stakeholders who are made to comply with stringent regulation
their counterparts in non-SECA are not subjected to
The easiest option to reduce sulphur emission
is to change the use of the usual marine heavy fuel oil (HFO) to cleaner and
lighter distillates that emit little waste after combustion such as the Marine
Gas Oil (MGO) and Marine Diesel Oil MDO..
Another popular option is the use of the
scrubber, an abatement technology that removes sulphur deposit from the ship
exhaust and permits the use of the cheaper HFO.. There are two types of
scrubber—the dry and the wet scrubbers. The wet scrubber is categorised into
three types: the open loop, the closed loop and the hybrid system scrubbers.
The open loop scrubber merrily discharges the
DIRTY exhaust wash water is discharged directly into the seawater. You save the
air and FUCK the water—that is how smart the CUNTS in IMO are .
Hey, but KOSHER help is at hand ( so what else in new ! )– we now have hybrid scrubbers so that, ship
owners can use the closed loop scrubber when on the shallow waters of the BSR
and change to the open loop during deep sailing.
One of the drawbacks common with the use of
the scrubbers, mostly the wet scrubbers is how or where the acidic wash water
is discharged. Another is that the discharged sludge must be kept in storage on
board until the ships berths giving the ship extra weight while cruising..
The cost of the retrofit is around 4 million USD,
subject to the age and the size of the ship. A scrubber has a lifespan of 10 years..
Running a scrubber on board ships requires additional additional electricity. This
means 100 USD per MWh will mean a 130,000
USD per year additional running costs, notwithstanding the maintenance and
extra running fuel costs.
Because of the uncertainties that surround the
fuel price and SECA regulations, most ship owners at the moment are favourably
disposed towards the use of fuel distillates such as MGO and MDO. A new fuel type called the ultra-low sulphur
fuel oil (ULSFO), a hybrid fuel of different refinery streams with a higher
viscosity and lower volatility to the MGO has been developed and is gaining
popularity as a cheaper source of marine fuel since 2014 Using ULSFO on ship
engines originally designed for HFO is dangerous .
Though policing of MARPOL Annex VI may have been
low key in the past, implementation is getting ever tighter. In addition, the
proper upkeep of the ‘Engine Technical File’ in-line with MARPOL Annex VI is at
best time-consuming and often considered unmanageable and an ACTIVITY TRAP
HEY, MUST REMEMBER , I MUST FROM NOW ON , MEASURE
MY FART CONTENT . BALLS TO THE HUMPLESS
COW, IF THEY DON’T WANT TO DO IT
THIS IS WHY I SAY— SEA IS A PLACE FOR CUNTS
WHO CANT THINK FOR NUTS !
Below: 25 KG DUMB BELLS. I AM CAREFUL WITH MY SPINE -- IT IS DANGEROUS TO HOLD 50 KILOS AWAY ( SWAYING MOTION ) FROM YOUR SPINAL COLUMN AT AN OLD AGE AT THE AGE OF 61 WHEN MEN HALF YOUR AGE CANNOT DO HALF OF WHAT YOU DO IN DOUBLE THE TIME - -IT MEANS YOU HAVE ENOUGH TESTOSTERONE IN OLDEN DAYS WHEN A BUNCH OF DRUNKEN SOLDIERS SAW A BUNCH OF DRUNKEN SAILORS COMING FROM THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE ROAD AT MIDNIGHT--THEY WOULD RUN FOR THEIR LIVES
IN THE POST BELOW , WHEN I WROTE ABOUT WHIPPING THE GORA ASSES OF
THREE HUGE BEEFY WHITE BRITISH MEN IN THE GYM -- NOBODY