THIS POST IS CONTINUED FROM PART 3 , BELOW---
Each and every criminal case could be logged and amended using blockchain technology. When a record is legitimately updated, for example, changes are reflected automatically across multiple copies – in a matter of seconds
Blockchains are regulated by technical code which is programmed into the software itself. Whereas breach of legal or regulatory rules results only in the potential for some form of punishment to be dealt, breach of technical codes causes an error to be returned and no activity to occur.
Because the law can’t keep up with innovation. To move forward, we must necessarily break the past.
The Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT), an arm of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), is developing a model platform for blockchain technology.
They don’t have the cerebral wherewithal.
They don’t have the cerebral wherewithal.
The Institute for Development & Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT) is a unique institution exclusively focused on Banking Technology. Established by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in 1996, the Institution works at the intersection of Banking and Technology. It is located in Hyderabad, India.
Since IDRBT has been set up, they have done FUCK ALL.
Below: Because these CUNTS dont know shit--
I am forced to pen this blog series. I am NOT enjoying this.
I penned a 33 part SHELL series -- Modi just stirs the pot .
The blockchain model promises us a future free from middlemen. Intuitively, we have always hated middlemen as they invariably increase transaction costs. The biggest middlemen of this planet are the parasite white Jews who make money by doing NO work
Those who were happy working hard and paying taxes, would never want to deal in Bitcoin currency which is being used by criminals. The growth of bitcoins invariably prove the criminal affinity of the human society and of the profiteering others who want to cash in on the growing value of it.
Hence, no government would ever want to officially recognise the bitcoin currency. The acceptance would directly mean that they are either ignorant of or totally fine with the huge criminal aspect bitcoins reveal everyday. Unnecessarily, blood money gets equated to good hard-earned money.
A notary ( not the shit ones we have now ) can verify and levy stamp duty on a smart contract on the blockchain network.
The justice system in India is ‘archaic and paper-based.’ These problems resulted in inefficient services and poor planning and even worse organization. These judges are the slowest creature on earth, yet they give deadlines to everybody else.
These loser lawyers turned judges even gave a deadline to the elected executive INTERLINK all Indian river and kill Bharatmata
The combination of AI algorithm technology coupled with a distributed chain-locked book to replace antiquated criminal justice systems around the world could have great compassionate effect on human suffering and help alleviate the abominable injustices that exist in prisons in India.
Artificially intelligent ( AI ) blockchain lets joint parties collectively agree on the state of the device and make decisions on what to do based on language coded into a smart contract.
Using blockchain tech, artificially intelligent software solutions are implemented autonomously. Risk management and self-diagnosis are other use cases being explored.
Artificial intelligence and blockchains are the 2 closed components of digital business. While Blockchains can help us verify, execute and record. AI helps in decision making, assessment, understanding and recognizing.
While the machine learning methods that are a part of AI help us find opportunity and improve decision making, smart contracts and blockchains can automate verification of the transactional parts of the process..
The AI sub-field called “Artificial General Intelligence” (AGI) is most relevant as AGI can be modeled as a feedback control system.. AI is developed “by the people, for the people” in an inclusive sense.
This leads to the concept of a decentralized, self-organizing AI economy — a network of AIs that exchange information and value among each other freely and rapidly, with participation open to anyone who creates an AI and inserts it into the network.
Such a network also opens new frontiers in social good, via issuance of value tokens that specifically direct AI effort toward tasks democratically determined to provide broad social benefit.
Until now, A.I. and blockchain have remained separate, however now they are joining forces to accelerate the development of robotic intelligence.
Machine learning makes use of algorithms that learn how to perform tasks such as prediction or classification without explicitly being programmed to do so. In essence, the algorithms learn from data rather than being pre-specified.
Blockchain with AI is already being offered as a service by major cloud providers including IBM and Microsoft. In the future, almost every transaction could be running on blockchain technology.
Smart contracts help companies benefit from a more streamlined approach while creating unbreakable agreements--reducing the presence of costly KOSHER middlemen and legalese.
A smart contract represents an impartial third party that is designed to advance both parties’ interests without the need for a broker. In Indian cities thousands of people earn a living by being brokers for flats. They collect their brokerage even when the 11 monthy renewal comes ( Mumbai ).
If you dont pay a fixed percentage as bribe at land registry govt offices, you stand to lose your own land.. The document writer collects this money and everybody gets their share. This is a mafia system.
As a logic-based system, a smart contract is intended to cover every aspect of a transaction from start to finish. It could be imagined as a very elongated “if/then” function that covers every inevitability that could arise from an agreement. Once established, a smart contract governs every interaction between the two parties, automatically responding to inputs from either party and executing the agreement as programmed.
The basic assumption of these blockchain mechanisms is that a large amount of nodes participate in the system, making it almost impossible for one to have the capability to control more than half of the nodes in the system.
In general, the more companies are involved in the network, the harder it is for one or a few to take over the blockchain system.
In reality, however, and especially in the adoption stage of a new technology, it is difficult to motivate a large number of enterprises to participate. Therefore, blockchain is more likely to be deployed and used among a limited number of pilot entities, which could collude to create fraudulent transactions. The kosher underworld is already drooling over this .
To mitigate the collusion risk, different priorities could be granted to different parties for transaction verification based upon their roles. For example, a bank could have the priority to verify a cash transaction, or regulators or auditors could be given the authority to hold a transaction with high risk of fraud before it is confirmed.
Blockchain provides the potential opportunity to prevent fraud in advance or detect fraud shortly after it occurs. By bringing various outside parties, such as business partners, creditors, and investors, into the loop, blockchain could enable a real-time alerting schema for fraud prevention.
It must be noted that the process of mapping the double-entry accounting system onto a blockchain infrastructure, and using it to deter corporate frauds, is still in its infancy.
INDIA MUST NOT JUMP OFF THE DEEP END WITHOUT EXTENSIVE VERIFICATION.
TELUGU CM CHANDRA BABU NAIDU IS ALREADY PALPITATING—
HE WANTS ANDHRA TO BE THE FIRST TO ADOPT BLOCKCHAIN-ULU ( OR IS IT BLOCKCHAIN-UDU ?) AND ENGRAVE HIS OWN NAME ON THE ROCK OF POSTERITY
HE WANTS ANDHRA TO BE THE FIRST TO ADOPT BLOCKCHAIN-ULU ( OR IS IT BLOCKCHAIN-UDU ?) AND ENGRAVE HIS OWN NAME ON THE ROCK OF POSTERITY
Despite the AML controls that must be complied with and exemplary punishments, global money laundering flows are estimated to be as high as 6% of the world’s GDP – over $2.2 trillion.
Currently, banks spend about US$11 billion per year on AML ( anti-money-laundering ) measures, yet money laundering continues to take place on a vast scale. The goal of laundering money is to “wash” illegally obtained money (e.g. through corruption) into “clean” money, making the origins of the money untraceable.
Blockchain technologies have five features that could make AML efforts both more effective and less costly:----
Consensus: Due to blockchain’s distributed ledger technology, everyone (or at least everyone involved) is able to see the same information on a transaction instantly. Rather than having databases that communicate with each other and update individually, blockchain updates happen simultaneously. In other words, banks can be sure that “I see what you see,” “I know that you know that I know,” and so on. This is essential for trust and has the potential to cut out the middlemen in transactions.
Validity: Blockchain technology provides certainty that every update in the system is valid, because the technology ensures that there is a common agreement on the rules of transactions. This makes it harder to game the system, for example by claiming database errors.
Uniqueness: It is impossible to create two conflicting entries into a blockchain system, making it impossible to pretend to source the money legally while actually sourcing it illegally.
Immutability: Because blockchain records are distributed over the whole network in a distributed ledger system, rather than a central database, blockchain transactions that were recorded are practically “immutable.” The data of past transactions cannot be changed, but only updated, and the data on previous transactions remains permanently available. Thus, once the data of a transaction have been recorded (including the previous owner of money, the new owner, and the basis for the transaction), these data are not falsifiable.
Authentication: Every transaction is associated with at least two private keys, while the concept of a “master key” is not part of a blockchain. This is very different from current database systems where an administrator or “super-user” could alter the database single-handedly, which is clearly risky from a security perspective.
In sum, transferring money with blockchain technology makes it possible to trace the historic and current ownership of every penny in the system.
It is akin to being able to look at the serial number on every dollar bill and identify every person who has ever held that dollar, as well as when, where and why it changed hands.
The most pressing challenge to move forward with blockchain technology in the financial industry – as noted by regulators and banks alike – is the standardization of the blockchain protocol.
Currently, there are multiple cryptocurrencies, blockchain networks, and protocols available, with hundreds of financial technology players fragmenting the market.
Without standardization, most benefits of blockchain will be unachievable, as the different networks will not be able to communicate with each other simultaneously.
Also, without a sound understanding of the technology, it will be hard for users – both in the public and the professional sphere – to find trust in the technology. And trust is the most crucial element for financial transactions.
Blockchain integrates “legal prose” in agreement to allow for disputes to be resolved transparently and quickly; It allows business logic to be written into the existing code.
Blockchain could make it possible to view a customer's payment history in real time and thus judge eligibility for loans.
Blockchain can help in social welfare objectives by eliminating the need for credit cards or bank accounts to disburse funds to those who are unbanked.
Building proper oracles to ensure execution of smart contracts is crucial. All cryptographic key material must be properly stored and handled.
The entire blockchain security rests on the assumption that cryptographic keys will be secured properly. Since most consensus algorithms are latency sensitive, it is also very important to have the most stable and lowest latency network connections possible.
If network interference increases latency, the maximum transaction throughput drops. One potential denial of service is to prevent consensus from occurring by disrupting the lines of communication.
With blockchains, extra care of network connections is needed or things go PHUTTT .
For blockchain technology to reach its full potential, it must exceed—accepted security standards. Currently, many security-conscious institutions rely on hardware security modules (HSMs) to safeguard and manage their digital keys, protecting potential access points in virtually any application that requires secure, verified digital signatures.
A hardware security module (HSM) is a physical computing device that safeguards and manages digital keys for strong authentication and provides cryptoprocessing.
These modules traditionally come in the form of a plug-in card or an external device that attaches directly to a computer or network server.
HSMs housed in bank data centers verify PIN numbers every time a customer withdraws cash from an ATM and validate transaction cryptograms when customers purchase goods at a merchant POS terminal.
In both cases, only the HSMs under a bank’s control have access to the correct keys to perform the secure processing. Leaving cryptographic keys in software sitting on a computer is the equivalent of leaving your house keys under the door mat.
An HSM is a cryptoprocessor that securely generates, protects, and stores keys.
The keys always live inside the secure, certified HSM boundary, rather than in software or on a hard drive, where they are vulnerable to attacks.HSMs use a certified, cryptographically secure random number generator to create keys that are of superior quality to those generated by a typical computer system
There are two main concerns that surround the technology; one is scalability and the other is security.
The security issue comes into play because in certain blockchain implementation, such as financial services use cases, digital wallets will be required. The digital wallet technology has not always been well protected and there have been instances where it has been hacked.
First created for use with Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency, blockchain is a distributed-trust public ledger system. Blockchain depends on volunteer users or “nodes” to track, verify, and add transactions to a continuously updated ledger using encryption.
Within cryptocurrencies, blockchains are maintained by nodes within the P2P blockchain network who use their own hardware resources to perform a process known as “mining”. Mining is the process of verifying transactions and adding them to the blockchain using encryption.
Blockchain provides an inexpensive and efficient way to record data by mass collaboration among users on a network. With all the peers on a network working in concert to verify and add data using encryption to a continuous data record or chain, the result is a fully trusted data source that is easy to maintain and unalterable.
As the nodes approve transactions, they are grouped together into blocks and added to the chain. Every block is coded with a specific cryptographic hash that subsequent blocks on the chain will share, which ensures the blocks will remain linked.
In addition to the hashes, Blockchain relies on cryptography and public key infrastructure to function. All data entered into the chain is encrypted, and every user on the network is assigned their own private key. Though the blockchain is publicly available, it is protected with encryption throughout the process.
Blockchain is built upon the principles of collective interest and mutual trust. Every user has access to the most recent version of the blockchain. Once a node completes a new block, it is added to the chain and the updated version of the blockchain is broadcasted to all other nodes.
There is no official version of the blockchain and no one version is more trusted than another. In addition to speed and efficiency, the decentralized structure of blockchain creates a difficult target for hackers. With no centralized structure, there is no primary target or single point of failure for attackers to exploit.
There is an old adage in computer science that goes: even if we design and build the perfect computer system, if you put garbage into it, you will get garbage out. Blockchains don’t change that at all.
People and computer-human interfaces are still the dominant factor in the overall security of a blockchain network. It all boils down to the fact that blockchains are distributed systems made up of computers that need to be secured by humans.
With permissioned blockchains, humans are responsible for managing the membership of users and their capabilities. They are also responsible for deploying the chaincode/smart contracts and also manage the cryptographic key material.
The cryptography and algorithmic design of blockchains is sound and if something goes wrong it is most likely because some HUMAN made a mistake ( DELIBERATELY )
The blockchain API performs the initial validation of the transaction and verifies that the proper credentials have been presented by the transaction proposer. The transaction then gets forwarded to a peer for validation and endorsement. To continue the analogy, think of the blockchain peer as being like the web application server, because it also handles executing smart contracts.
Once the transaction is endorsed and the smart contract executed, the transaction moves on to being ordered and recorded in the next block in the blockchain. That is very similar to how web application state is recorded in a back-end database cluster.
The point of this analogy is to show that blockchains don’t have drastically different security requirements. The one area that does require some extra attention is around the protection of the cryptographic key materials.
Special care must also be taken to ensure that the consensus part of the distributed ledger operates on network connections with the lowest latency and highest quality of service as possible.
This is because many of the consensus algorithms are latency sensitive and the upper bound on their transaction rate is tied to the overall system latency.
We will never drive criminals entirely off the blockchain,. But we can explore innovations that would make the blockchain safer for legitimate commerce but inhospitable for bad actors, and that would allow law enforcement to focus its resources just on those parts of the network where criminals are able to operate despite our best efforts.
We all have a shared interest in making sure that those who seek to use the blockchain for criminal purposes do think twice.
WAIVING FARMER LOANS HAS NOW BECOME A VOTE MILKING MACHINE
Farm loan waivers across states could hurt the finances of states and make them throw good money after bad, and stoke inflation. Debt waiver packages, even if limited to a few states, will likely prove to be counter-productive and offer little gains to farmers over the long run.
MPs AND MLAs WANT TO GET REELECTED
YOUNG J SCINDIA CALLS FARMERS “ANNA DHATA “ WHILE HE SPEAKS IN LOK SABHA—LIKE A BHARATNATYAM DANCER USING HIS TENDER HANDS AND BODY SWAYS
SORRY- ANNA DHATA IS GOD. A LOT OF OUR FARMERS ARE DESH DROHI MAOISTS AND NAXALS
Three major states—Uttar Pradesh (UP), Punjab and Maharashtra—have announced large-scale farm debt waivers.
The debt waiver packages of UP and Punjab were aimed to fulfil poll promises made by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Congress party, respectively, in these two states. The cumulative debt relief announced by the three states amounts to around Rs77,500 crore or 0.6% of India’s 2016-17 GDP.
WE DEMAND THAT FARMER LOANS AND FLOOD RELIEFS SHOULD NOW BE ON BLOCKCHAIN
EVERY YEARS THE SAME PEOPLE CLAIM FLOOD RELIEF .. THEY HAVE TWO HOMES—ONE IN A FLOOD PRONE AREA BUILT ON GOVT LAND ( A SHED WITHOUT VALUABLE )
Blockchain can be used to "reduce fraud, corruption, error and the cost of paper-intensive processes. UK government has used blockchain to disburse student loan grants and track welfare checks.
British welfare claimants use an app to receive and spend their welfare checks. This enables the government to track the claimants' spending digitally.
Below: Foreign funded NGO controlled farmer agitation
LOANS AND WAIVERS MUST BE TIED TO AADHAR
IN INDIA LTTE TERRORISTS TOOK LOANS FROM I GOVT BANKS TO FUND THEIR MOVEMENT
A credit score is a numerical expression based on a level analysis of a person's credit files, to represent the creditworthiness of an individual. A credit score is primarily based on a credit report information typically sourced from credit bureaus.
Lenders, such as banks and credit card companies, use credit scores to evaluate the potential risk posed by lending money to consumers and to mitigate losses due to bad debt.
Lenders use credit scores to determine who qualifies for a loan, at what interest rate, and what credit limits. Lenders also use credit scores to determine which customers are likely to bring in the most revenue.
The use of credit or identity scoring prior to authorizing access or granting credit is an implementation of a trusted system.
A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
The credit rating represents an evaluation of a credit rating agency of the qualitative and quantitative information for the prospective debtor, including information provided by the prospective debtor and other non-public information obtained by the credit rating agency's analysts.
A credit history is a record of a borrower's responsible repayment of debts. A credit report is a record of the borrower's credit history from a number of sources, including banks, credit card companies, collection agencies, and governments.
A borrower's credit score is the result of a mathematical algorithm applied to a credit report and other sources of information to predict future delinquency.
In many countries, when a customer fills out an application for credit from a bank, credit card company, or a store, their information is forwarded to a credit bureau. The credit bureau matches the name, address and other identifying information on the credit applicant with information retained by the bureau in its files.
The gathered records are then used by lenders to determine an individual's credit worthiness; that is, determining an individual's ability and track record of repaying a debt. The willingness to repay a debt is indicated by how timely past payments have been made to other lenders.
Lenders like to see consumer debt obligations paid regularly and on time, and therefore focus particularly on missed payments and may not, for example, consider an overpayment as an offset for a missed payment.
To establish a real decentralized lending system on the Blockchain, that for now consists only of pseudo-anonymous users, we need to introduce a fully Decentralized Credit Rating (DCR) system, that obtains it’s data from the Blockchain directly.
This way, the risk profile related to collateral free lending might become tangible, since addresses will have reputation, as we have it with centralized credit scores.
In the west many startups have blockchain-based initiative to build a decentralized credit platform.
These startups are NOT lenders, but rather, a platform to facilitate lending between lenders and borrowers.
In the wake of the Equifax hack, which exposed the private information of more than 140 million people, we’ve all become painfully aware of the flaws and limitations of today’s credit system
Even today, there are two billion people in the world (including 40 million Americans), who cannot access credit and remain “trapped” for reasons out of their control — the systematic under-banking of certain regions, lack of family credit history, or even algorithmic discrimination.
This could be a true opportunity to demonstrate the value of decentralization — the first real “killer app” for the blockchain.
Smart contracts and the blockchain makes this process easier
The Blockchain is a global, open and in real time available ledger of financial transactions, that can be analysed using automated algorithms and prediction markets. Credit scoring will now call the shots.
As the Equifax data breach shows, no one’s credit information is secure. It’s estimated that 143 million Americans and as many as 400,000 Brits may have been affected by the breach.
Since the breach has been reported, there has been a run on credit monitoring products. And none of the credit bureaus can guarantee that hackers won’t gain access to their data. In fact, its getting increasingly more difficult for any company using the Web for database storage to insure the data they keep is 100% secure.
Using the Global Credit Profile, users will be able to:--
Monitor and control their own financial data in real time
Dispute errors and omissions
Link credit accounts so that more data is included in their profile
Port their data anywhere they want to globally to ensure they have access to the best credit products in any country they live or travel to
Control who gains access to the data and get paid for that access
A Global Credit Profile will work by leveraging the inherent decentralization of the blockchain as a distributed ledger allowing each credit transaction to be approved using the same or similar processes used to record cryptocurrency transactions in real time today.
Any information currently collected by the credit bureaus can be kept in a consumer’s self-controlled file including rent and mortgage payments, utility bill payments, lines of credit, and more. Plus, the credit profile can include social data gathered from user’s social media accounts.
Each user gets an IP address and a key to enable the application. The user can access all of their financial information in one location.
Alternative data will become the norm in credit profiling in the future. That will include machine learning algorithms, social data, and utility payments for many of the world’s unbanked and underbanked
The Internet is a centralized system involving many actors, with no unified consensus mechanism. As a result, there are many different systems and components that do not communicate.
The basic structure of the blockchain is its address or public key: the very mechanism that allows users to transfer funds and work with digital agreements called smart contracts.
Similarly, the Internet runs on a server with a public IP address. Since no public information about this address exists, it is merely a point to which one can connect and execute certain actions.
The main area in which blockchain and the Internet differ is in the number of services they require to operate. For instance, a web site needs a domain name, which is then assigned to the DNS and indexed in a search engine; an SSL certificate for the security of users; and functional content that is used directly.
On the blockchain, any person or company with a profile rating reflecting some digital essence of trust, including the history of the transactions of the user — similar to a Google search history log
Each profile, as a smart contract, will be able to contain all user information in one economic unit, make deals with other profiles, arbitrage and be arbitraged, and most importantly, connect to different rating networks.
Rating networks will be a blockchain representation of an organization unit where we have some score based on different factors, including job and academic performance.
Simply put, all users in the network will be able to see how successful you are.
Blockchain is in its early stages of development. As much as it’s been compared to the Internet, one of its primary advantages is that it represents an opportunity to start from scratch: to design anything we want and develop our own standards.
By letting users work on their profiles within the blockchain network, it gives them the chance to create a full-fledged economic unit, or “digital passport.” Each user, whether this is a company or an individual, will now be able to carry out transactions between other individuals.
In addition, the rating and history of their profile will be much more informative and more trusted, but also immutable. This final rating will be more reliable than a work reference, tax filing, or credit history, chiefly because it will be impossible to forge.
This will offer new projects the ability to forge the path of their own destiny in the age of the digital economy.
While the advent of the Internet offered the possibility of increased connectivity, blockchain has the potential to take this to the next step by providing the world with a way to become fully digital.
When transactions and marketplaces have become completely digitized, the creation of fully decentralized and trustless societies becomes a very real possibility.
ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION CAN BE CONTROLLED BY BLOCKCHAIN
Finland has said it has “solved” the problem of refugee identity, using the Blockchain to record data of new residents.
Finland is providing arrivals with a prepaid debit card instead of cash, and linking the identity of cardholders to the Blockchain.
In issuing them, Finnish authorities are able to track both spending and identity with the added benefit that the Blockchain data is immutable.
Finland wants immigration. Their men are unable to get their pricks up and women want tight twat to keep their sexual market value high. Let truth be told
Population is dwindling. Immigration is an increasingly important driver of population growth in Finland.
Immigration accounted for 81 % of the population growth as the number of births have been decreasing year after year
Blockchain, a technology that has more compute power behind it on a decentralized basis than any open source project in history, could fundamentally reinvent the banking system. Very few bankers understand it.
First, there was the view that bitcoin is purely for payments. No. Bitcoin, the protocol, and other cryptocurrencies are for the recording of digital value exchanges that can take any form from a payment to a marriage vow.
Bitcoin blockchain is of interest, but not the currency.
In simple words, Blockchain is nothing but an open, anonymous, permanent online ledger connected to a centralized network. It uses a new data structure to simplify the process and eliminate the need for third parties.
Hence, it brings down that erstwhile dependence on people for verification of transactions. Being a distributed database, Blockchain captures inputs and places them into a block and then each block is connected or ‘chain’-ed to the next block through a cryptographic signature.
It is a ledger that is easy to make, is open and accessible by anyone as long as permissions are set. Blockchain, as a continuously growing list of records i.e. blocks, that are linked and secured using cryptography, allow an application developer to create a distributed database that can be read by anyone, but can only be written to by consensus.
It’s anonymous, so it can protect the identities of users and allow entities and people to carry out transactions at never-before levels of privacy, security and non-intrusion.
It’s permanent and digital, so that translates into putting in any number of transactions and records and chronicling them so well that the whole thread or equation accomplishes degrees of transparency and credibility that even the best of regulators can still merely dream of.
It’s open, distributed and can also be programmed so transactions can be triggered automatically, contracts can become set in digital code and safe from tampering or deletion ever. Every agreement between parties can, easily and non-physically, get converted into a digital record – properly identified, validated, stored, and shared. This wipes away the role, effort and expense of intermediaries, brokers, as algorithms enable fast and free interactions devoid of previous friction and oversight.
So yes, this is possible – two entities may not know each other and still agree and assign verity to something without the presence or involvement of a third party. Blockchains can also function as ‘permissioned’ ledgers so that everyone in the process is pre-selected, or as ‘unpermissioned’ ones that are open to all.
They can be used as a single source of information and hence, for money transfers, record keeping and other back-end functions being the easy, digital, open, decentralised ledgers they are. For instance, most Banks need to maintain reserves with multiple counterparties at once and it would help immensely if they can settle transactions point-to-point as a straight-through process. This will mean a world that is easier, cheaper, and faster for banks and customers alike since the complex, superfluous and expensive list-keeping can finally be done away with. Now direct transactions are possible – immediate and irrevocable ones at that. So real-time settlements can finally happen. Also holding accounts with correspondent banks and managing lifting fees can now be a thing of the past
The quality and speed of data becomes so high, consistent, precise and so real-time that new revenue streams can also be tapped while offering customers seamless and actually-nimble experiences. Plus, their special quality of being non-alterable, as immutable ledgers in real time, can help to track documentation and authenticate ownership of assets digitally. Business models like asset servicing, and smart contracts can flourish amazingly for many banks easily.
They can reduce human intervention and make it possible for banks to execute and verify transactions with improved accuracy and efficiency.
Since transactions are continuously kept as ‘blocks’ of records, they are secure, scalable and durable- also making the entire process far simpler and fluid than it ever was. They do not just cut paper and costs but also revitalize the ingredient of trust that is quintessential in financial information.
Disintermediation takes off both the risk and expense of counterparties and enables more empowerment for users to control their information.
Possibility of failure or intrusion is almost negligible with these ledgers and hence process integrity as well as transparency goes to a new realm here. These are almost immutable and hence find ready use in areas like exchanges, smart contracts and Payments.
Financial entities can reap many more rewards whenthe clutter and complications of multiple ledgers is taken off and lower transaction costs can be tapped successfully. Endless days for clearing and final settlement can now be a thing of the past as transaction times become real-time and available all the time.
For banks where keeping records of transactions made a major part of function and reconciling transactions across individual and private ledgers took so much time, paper and error – a Blockchain is almost a boon.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building application software. In general terms, it is a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software components.
A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer.
An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware or software library.
An API specification can take many forms, but often includes specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, variables or remote calls.
Mastercard is to open up access to its inhouse blockchain technology platform via an API which will be made available to developers at banks and retailers.
Smart contracts can interact with data living in the blockchain but it is impossible to get informations from the web. Using Oraclize, we’ll see how your smart contracts can get data from outside the blockchain and execute any API call.
Blockchain is updated via a Consensus protocol. It ensures an unambiguous ordering and validation of transactions and guarantees the integrity and consistency of the Blockchain across geographically distributed nodes. Some Consensus protocols are decentralized/permissionless, and some are permissioned
Blockchain is made up of three technologies – cryptographic algorithms, a distributed protocol, and replicated data – which combined provide a trustworthy service to a group of nodes that do not fully trust each other. With blockchain, several users can write entries into a block or a record of information, and a community can control how the record of information is modified and updated.
There are two types: public and permissioned. In a public blockchain, such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, anyone can join or run a node and anyone can participate in the consensus process for determining what’s called the ‘valid’ state. In contrast, a permissioned blockchain is operated by known entities, such as consortium blockchains, where a specific group of stakeholders in a given context run a permissioned blockchain network
Permissioned blockchain systems have the means to identify the nodes that can control and update the shared state of a ledger, and often also have ways to control who can issue transactions.
A consensus protocol ensures that the involved nodes agree on a unique order in which entries to the ledger are appended. Currently, many new features and completely new blockchain protocols for distributed ledgers are emerging, mainly within the fintech and startup scene.
Most of these proposals come without a clearly stated trust assumption or a solid security model, despite the bold claims being made. Moreover, there is no agreed consensus in the industry on which assumptions are realistic for an intended application, nor is there an accepted standard for the validation for protocols
I RECKON I AM GETTING TOO TECHNICAL.
OK, I WILL SCALE BACK FOR THE LOWEST COMMON DENOMINATOR
NYET sayers cry -- we no longer need trendspotters, when everything is changing all the time, and when everything else — branding, marketing, behavior and lifestyle — can adapt in real time.
Trendspotting can be frustrating. It’s hard enough just to keep up with what’s happening right now and to try to make sense of whatever it was that just happened; attempting to conceptualize the future can be exhausting.
Trendspotting is something CONSCIOUS humans are hardwired to do.
Trends are r “idea viruses,” because they flourish only when large numbers of people are in close contact and things are changing fast.
I WAS A GRANDMASTER OF CHANGE AT SEA BECAUSE VADAKAYIL BINDU 4D THINKING USED TRENDS .
I COULD HARNESS TRENDS .
I COULD CREATE DOMINOS AND CASCADES.
I COULD ALTER THE COURSE OF THE FUTURE
In the posts below I have revealed only 20% of my CHANGE MANAGEMENT methods. Or it would be like giving a match stick to a monkey
Elio is a customer service AI assistant that responds to users' questions. Built with IBM's Watson machine-learning technology, it analyses an inquiry, searches the NetApp support data base and then, hopefully, gives you the answer you're looking for.
We have recognised threats coming more regularly from varied origins such as nation-states, hacktivist and cybercriminal actors. Coupled with many new public policies aimed at mitigating the negative effects of data breaches, cyber espionage and intellectual property theft, it’s clear a new ecosystem of cyber threat intelligence sharing is emerging.
We need to train cyber threat analysts using a technique that builds on the use on a threat intelligence platform (TIP) as a key tool in conveying the tradecraft of cybersecurity threat intelligence.
A global standards body known as the Organisation for the Advancement of Structured Information Systems (OASIS) has sponsored the further development of a standardised language, syntax and logic for a set of protocols for threat intelligence sharing.
The Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) is a global nonprofit consortium that works on the development, convergence, and adoption of standards for security, Internet of Things, energy, content technologies, emergency management, and other areas.
CAS ( complex adaptive systems ) is a constantly changing, self-revising, feedback-incorporating concept that is typical in modern urban warfare.
Troops engaged in battles in this context must simultaneously collect and process information, then develop intelligence on the social, economic, political, geographic, and adversarial conditions.
The norm in modern warfare is irregular warfare, where adversaries are unevenly matched and chaos, subterfuge, and obfuscation are the key modus operandi of small bands of fighting units pitted against more formal hierarchical military structures.
The cybersecurity industry’s notion of an advanced persistent threat (APT) also incorporates a concept that accounts for many of the constantly morphing conditions of CAS and, at the same time, the tactical nature of irregular warfare.
Structured Threat Information Expression (STIX) is a language and serialization format used to exchange cyber threat intelligence (CTI).
STIX enables organizations to share CTI with one another in a consistent and machine readable manner, allowing security communities to better understand what computer-based attacks they are most likely to see and to anticipate and/or respond to those attacks faster and more effectively.
STIX is designed to improve many different capabilities, such as collaborative threat analysis, automated threat exchange, automated detection and response, and more.
In the simplest of terms, the Dark Web is a part of the World Wide Web that is accessible through special browsers like Tor. Built with layers of encryption, the Dark Web provides a level of anonymity and freedom from surveillance that is no longer possible on the open web.
The Dark Web and browsers like Tor were originally built for activists living under repressive regimes to be able to organize and communicate without fear of reprisal, using mirroring tools to hide their identities. Hackers looking to engage in illegal activities, like selling stolen identities and credit cards, also found it a great place to set up shop.
Chat dens are places where hackers can discuss how to carry out attacks and share knowledge. This can be as simple as asking who wants to join in a hack against a specific target. In other cases, they can talk about vulnerabilities in certain kinds of widely used code, utilizing the hive mind to problem solve.
Cyber security companies stake out chat rooms and message boards, listening and recording important bits of information, so that they can be in the know and ready to predict the next wave of attacks from hackers.
The Structured Threat Information Expression (STIX) format was developed by the OASIS Open organization as a machine readable standardized language to help share cyber threat intelligence.
When a researcher or developer spots a piece of malware or other intel in the wilds of the Dark Web, they can pass the information on using STIX’s application transport protocol known as the Trusted Automated Exchange of Intelligence Information (TAXXII).
The Dark Web like its cousin the Deep Web is uncharted territory.
U.S. defense establishment’s DARPA group has backed the Memex project, which aims to build machine learning-based crawlers that are capable of searching through the Dark Web. As privacy becomes harder to maintain online, the public may turn to the Dark Web for greater anonymity.
Like freedom of speech, once anonymity is gone for those we disagree with, it is lost for the rest of us as well.
As privacy becomes harder to maintain online, the public may turn to the Dark Web for greater anonymity. Like freedom of speech, once anonymity is gone for those we disagree with, it is lost for the rest of us as well.
DARPA awarded a contract to a computer security firm called Galois . The firm's assignment is to formally verify - through a sort of computer-code audit using mathematics - a particular type of blockchain technology supplied by a company called Guardtime. Formal verification is one way to build nearly unhackable code and it's a big part of DARPA's approach to security .
The case for using a blockchain boils down to a concept in computer security known as " information integrity ." That's essentially the ability to track when a system or piece of data has been viewed or modified.
Blockchain architecture is decentralized and is based on consensus algorithms. This makes hacking more difficult. One compromised node should not affect the blockchain since a majority of the core nodes must agree to the action.
Once created, Blockchains are immutable and incorruptible. Mathematically provable algorithms enable continuous verification and calibration of the validity of a blockchain. Attempted modifications are immediately flagged
Because on-chain ‘addresses’ are cryptographically secure, and participants can place their trust in the integrity and secure features of the consensus mechanism, the integrity of identity, information and modifications/exchanges is guaranteed.
Timestamps and ‘hashing’ of previous blocks ensure that each subsequent block on the chain includes an encrypted, consistent and immutable record of all previous blocks.
DARPA offers this analogy: "Instead of trying to make the walls of a castle as tall as possible to prevent an intruder from getting in, it's more important to know if anyone has been inside the castle, and what they're doing there."
In DARPA's use cases, blockchain technology could create important intelligence around whether a hacker has modified something in a database, or if they are intruding and surveilling a particular military system.
As it is difficult to keep out every single hostile player, data integrity - the ability to track if information has been viewed or modified - may be more important. The blockchain operates as a decentralized ledger that timestamps any change that occurs, offering a way for these agencies to quickly know who has infiltrated the system and what they did within it.
As a result of its distributed nature and instantaneous recording, the blockchain is vastly more resistant to tampering than centralized systems. This could alert military and intelligence authorities if a hacker is surveying a particular military system or has made modifications, without allowing the actor to cover their tracks.
The notion of the U.S. military using a blockchain to secure crucial data may create another boom in its value outside of fintech.
Most invaders spend more than 150 days on a network before they are discovered
More than 60% of the world’s largest companies are now researching blockchain technologies with the goal of integrating them into their products. Past systems put the task of storing and updating entries in the hands of one or a few KOSHER entities, whom you have to trust won’t mess with the data or get hacked.
With public blockchains, a group of anonymous strangers (and their computers) can work together to store, curate, and secure a perpetually growing set of data without anyone having to trust anyone else. Because blockchains are replicated across a peer-to-peer network, the information they contain is very difficult to corrupt or extinguish.
A version of Facebook built on a public blockchain, for example, would be incapable of censoring ANTI-KOSHER posts before they appeared in users’ feeds
Removing miners improves the speed and data-storage capacity of a blockchain.
If a blockchain is a ledger, blocks are the pages inside it. Blocks are added to the blockchain in sequential order. A blockchain, then, is technically infinite, and constantly expanding.
Single blocks contain a reference to the transaction directly preceding them. This means that all blocks are linked — hence, blockchain. Additionally, all transactional records within a blockchain are permanent and irreversible.
To be added to the blockchain, a block must contain an answer to a mathematical equation.
In addition to verifying the authenticity of blocks, the equation acts as a mechanism that keeps the blockchain orderly, preventing it from becoming flooded.
In addition to verifying the authenticity of blocks, the equation acts as a mechanism that keeps the blockchain orderly, preventing it from becoming flooded.
The act of solving equations is known as MINING..
Mining can prove financially lucrative, as a bitcoin reward is given to those who are able to solve blocks.
Blockchain exposes exactly what happened, when it took place and who was involved... it kicks out intermediaries that can easily manipulate records.
Blockchain can either be public or private, just like the Internet. Transactions on a public blockchain are completely transparent and visible to anyone who wishes to explore.
A private blockchain restricts access to a selected few, who have been given permissions. However, the biggest advantage of both these types lies in the elimination of an intermediary to complete the transactions, as well as the detailed audit trail that it creates.
Often, intermediaries in the system try to take out an unaccounted portion of fund allocation whenever a contract is awarded, thereby robbing taxpayers of their hard-earned money.
Blockchain can put an end to this by recording each and every transaction and making it transparent. It would enable public access to all the contracts awarded, transactions done by the government, businesses, contractors, public and everyone who is responsible for any decision-making and deals with money in such transactions.
Funds allocation and cost incurred against it at each level can be fairly audited and accounted for. Every action will be recorded on a ledger and this ledger can be made public for scrutiny and transparency.
Indian politics has been time and again accused of influencing the decisions of electors by giving out money in order to secure a vote bank.
With blockchain, the entire process of elections—from awarding a ticket to a candidate to campaign spends to the final stage of voting—can be made public. This move will ensure a more fair and transparent electoral system in the country.
With the emergence of new technologies, smartphones and robust networks, the digital banking era is already here. Sending and receiving a major part of payments digitally and recording it on blockchain can help our economy match income against cost and savings far more easily. Filtering out black money becomes simple
IN INDIA DIGITAL PAYMENTS MUST BE MADE CHEAPER THAN CASH PAYMENTS. THIS IS THE ONLY WAY TO ABOLISH INCOME TAX AND BRING IN BTT OR BANKING TRANSACTION TAX
There should be no retrospective taxation on merchants doing digital transactions. The Tax system we currently follow is a Progressive Tax System.
Those with lower income pay a smaller percentage of their income as tax, and those with larger incomes pay a greater part of it. Direct taxes cannot be too high since high taxation actually leads to people trying their best to avoid them(legal or not).
So governments also tax Goods and Services which are also known as Indirect Taxes and which aren’t so easily avoided. With GST being a reality, the ability to avoid payment of taxes on goods and services will be further reduced..
By moving away from the collection of Income Tax and instead charging a percentage based fee, the government could collect way more and hence reduce other forms of taxation.
SALARIES ARE INCREASING.
PENSION AMOUNTS ARE INCREASING ..
BUT RETIRED PEOPLE WHO HAVE NO PENSION , ARE GETTING ROYALLY SCREWED AS THEIR MONTHLY INCOMES ARE DECREASING .
WHERE IS THE LOGIC IN THIS ?
IS OUR PM ( WITH 56 INCH CHEST ) AND FINANCE MINISTER SO FUCKIN’ CALLOUS ?
OR ARE THEY JUST PLAIN STUPID ?
Below: Check out the KALANK to Indian womenhood , DEEPIKA PADUKONE guffawing like a donkey who has seen fresh shit ---over each DIRTY ANAL SEX comment.
This is the filthy woman who directly complained to I&B minister Smriti Irani --like an outraged BHAARGEEN nay virgin , over her stupid Padmavati rangoli being scuffed up by a few Rajput desh bhakts
And just who the hell is Smriti Irani, who was catapulted from sidey starlet to I&B minister by Narendra Damodardas Modi ?
You see YALE CELEBRATED HER LEADERSHIP CAPACITY--- BAAAAPR RE ! Check out her face when she lies.
Madame Smriti Irani-- WE THE PEOPLE will not allow benami media to convert our women into whores !
Below: Of course Smriti Irani will sponsor such KALANKs -- that is what she has been given the I&B minister chair for
Two months ago, the Supreme Court held that privacy is a fundamental right under the Constitution with reasonable restrictions, a landmark decision that could affect AADHAR.
THE MELORDS ARE WRONG ! ( SO WHAT ELSE IS NEW ? ).
TOBA TOBA-- Aadhaar data is centrally stored.
There are fears that Chinese (or any other) hackers will hack into the CENTRAL database.
There are even greater fears that any government or authority with malevolent intent will have access to the personal information and location of every Indian citizen and, therefore, the ability to inflict extreme surveillance and targeted damage
WE HAD A PM OF INDIA GIVING AWAY THE DEEP ASSETS OF RAW IN PAKISTAN AWAY
THE FIRST CHIEF OF PMO WAS A CIA AGENT
The government claims that the UIDAI database is in a central server with super-tight security, protected by best-in-class cryptography.
Unfortunately, hackers are always ahead of the game, and have broken into the super-secure systems like the NSA (National Security Agency) in the US, and Britain’s NHS (National Health Service).
And what is to prevent a PM who is a CIA spy ( PM Morarji Desai was one ) from amending the laws and going after its own citizens, using this targeted information?
Whoever hacked into the Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR) can reveal the personally identifiable information of more than 1.2 billion users
As of this date, over 99.1 % of Indians aged 18 and above had been enrolled in Aadhaar
Enter the dragon--nay-- blockchain.
If Aadhaar was built on a blockchain platform, most of the concerns could be addressed.
The database would be immensely difficult to hack: besides getting around the state-of-the-art cryptographic protection, the hackers would need to hack into multiple nodes or servers, rather than just one
Currently, the Aadhaar card is needed for:--
Opening a bank account
Employee Provident Fund (EPF) account
To link your PAN
To link mutual fund investments
Filing income tax returns
Getting a new mobile phone connection
Getting a passport
Getting a voter id
WE WILL NOT ALLOW ANY GOVT TO SWITCTH OFF OUR LIFE USING AADHAR
The Government recently amended the Income-Tax Act, 1961 introducing Section 139AA to make Aadhaar and PAN linkage mandatory for the taxpayers. This is done to curb the tendency to avoid filing taxes—observed among citizens—and to curtail the circulation of black money within the system.
From July 1, 2017 onwards, every person eligible to obtain Aadhaar must quote their Aadhaar number or their Aadhaar Enrolment ID number to file Income Tax Returns.
Every person who has been allotted a permanent account number (PAN) as on the 1st day of July 2017, and those who have Aadhaar, or are eligible to obtain an Aadhaar shall intimate his Aadhaar details to income tax authorities for the purpose of linking PAN with Aadhaar
Fraud and chargebacks are two sides of the same coin. We call “fraud” a case when there is a transaction that was submitted by a fraudulent party, e.g. someone who is using someone else’s credit card. A chargeback, on the other end, is needed when the receiving party is fraudulent.
Chargeback fraud, also known as friendly fraud, occurs when a consumer makes an online shopping purchase with their own credit card, and then requests a chargeback from the issuing bank after receiving the purchased goods or services.
As is the case with any other type of fraud, chargeback fraud involves dishonest practices. Although chargebacks are intended to protect consumers from unfair merchants and identity theft, these bank-facilitated refunds are increasingly misused by consumers.
Chargeback fraud occurs when a customer files a chargeback on a legitimate transaction instead of following the merchant’s procedures for requesting a refund.
Well-intentioned customers may accidentally commit chargeback fraud because they are ignorant of the differences between a traditional refund and a bank-issued refund. They don’t know what chargeback fraud is and incorrectly assume a chargeback is simply an easier way to get their money back.
Other consumers are aware of the loopholes in the chargeback process and knowingly abuse this consumer protection mechanism. For example, a customer will authorize a credit card transaction and later file a fraudulent chargeback once the item has been received. In this case, chargeback fraud is committed in the hopes of getting something for free.
Common claims that chargeback fraudsters make include:--
The purchased item or service wasn’t delivered.
The purchased item or service wasn’t as described (for example, counterfeit product or subpar services).
The merchant didn’t cancel the customer’s recurring payment when requested.
The original transaction wasn’t authorized.
Whether chargeback fraud is committed innocently or intentionally, the outcome is bad news for the affected business.
Fees are issued.
Revenue is lost.
Valuable resources are inadequately dispersed.
The cost of goods sold is forfeited.
Future profitability is denied.
Transaction processing fees are wasted.
Businesses that repeatedly fall victim to chargeback fraud run the risk of not only losing profits, but also losing the privilege of accepting credit cards.
When a cardholder initiates a transaction dispute, the bank requires little or no evidence before submitting the chargeback to the merchant’s acquiring bank. By failing to verify the legitimacy of each chargeback, banks allow cardholders to file fraudulent chargebacks without repercussion.
It is far easier for cardholders to commit chargeback fraud against online merchants than brick-and-mortar stores. This is because fraud detection systems for most online merchants have not been able to keep pace with the growing volume of online card-not-present transactions
These are a lot of layers in a secure payment processing environment. The more layers and participants, the more room for error and disruption. Paperwork gets lost, records are hacked, files are deleted, and chargeback fraud happens.
Chargebacks represent a large portion of the online fraud. Chargebacks are harmful for merchants and card issuers since they require time for investigation and can negatively affect profits. Chargebacks can occur for several reasons.
The most common are:--
Fraudulent Transaction: Cardholder did not give consent for a transaction
Credit Not Processed: Cardholder was never credited for returned merchandise
Item Not Received: Cardholder was charged but never received the item
Technical Problems: Invalid connection between the merchant and issuer can result in a double charge
Blockchain is the technology created for the digital age and one of its core functions is to address online fraud
Not all friendly fraud is intentional: many customers simply don’t understand the difference between a chargeback and a refund. They get their money back—often with less hassle—and give no thought as to who was responsible for reimbursing them.
Of course, there’s a huge difference between a chargeback and a refund. By using the bank as a customer service “middleman,” these consumers are unknowingly engaged in “cyber shoplifting.”
On the other hand, more and more friendly fraudsters are cognizant of their actions. They specifically make purchases with the intention of filing illegitimate chargebacks.
Not only do the criminals get free merchandise or services, some will even claim a refund from the merchant immediately before filing a chargeback to “double-dip” on the fraud.
LET US DANCE FOR MODI -- KO KO KOVINDAAAAAA
IN MY SONS OFFICE PETS ARE ALLOWED-- HERE HE IS PLAYING WITH A CLEVER DOG OF HIS COLLEAGUE, INSIDE THE OFFICE...
THERE IS NO FIXED TIMING -- YET THE COMPANY PROVIDES BREAKFAST, LUNCH AND DINNER ( CLASSY ) TO MAKE PEOPLE COME TO OFFICE DURING EARTHLY HOURS--
CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL